Chapter XI -- Having a part in to do with the church KING’S SON LANDS

It only remains now to say of to do with the church King’s son lands, touching which all difficulties are before to getting thing of owner, because they are gotten either by power or good chance event, and they can be kept without one or the other; for they are supported by the old orders of religion, which are so all-powerful, and of such a special mark that the King’s son lands may be kept no field of interest how their Princes do and live. These Princes alone have states and do not keep them safe; and they have subjects and do not rule them; and the nations, although unguarded, are not taken from them, and the persons, although not ruled, do not care, and they have neither the desire nor the power to push away themselves. Such King’s son lands only are safe, certain and happy. But being upheld by powers, to which the mankind mind cannot get, I shall say no more of them, because, being made great and said (thing is true) by highest being, it would be the act of a forward, taking much upon oneself and without enough thought of danger man to have a discussion them.

Though that is so, if any one should question of me how comes it that the Church has got to such being great in time-limited power, seeing that from Alexander back-part first the Italian powerful persons (not only those who have been named powerful persons, but every man of high birth and ruler, though the smallest) have valued the time-limited power very slightly -- yet now a king of France shakes before it, and it has been able to make go him from Italy, and to serious damage the Venetians -- although this may be very clear to eye or mind, it does not come into view as to me unnecessary to have in mind, get memory of it in some measure to memory.

Before Charles, King of France, passed into Italy, this country was under the dominion of the Pope, the Venetians, the King of Naples, the Duke of Milan, and the Florentines. These powerful persons had two principal troubles: the one, that no person of another country should move into Italy under arms; the other, that none of themselves should get a grip more land under some government. Those about whom there was the most cause for being worked up were the Pope and the Venetians. To grip the Venetians the coming together of all the others was necessary, as it was for the making attempt to keep from attack of Ferrara; and to keep down the Pope they made use of the men of high birth of Rome, who, being made a division into two self-interest (political) groups, Orsini and Colonnesi, had always a trick reasons given for out of order, and, position with arms in their hands under the eyes of the Church Head, kept the long discussion not so strong and powerless. And although there might gets up sometimes a fearless Pope, such as Sixtus, yet neither great amount of money nor wise material could get out of the way him of these thing giving trouble. And the short existence of a pope is also a cause of feebleness; for in the ten years, which is the mean living of a pope, he can with trouble lower one of the self-interest (political) groups; and if, so to say, one people should almost put an end to the Colonnesi, another would gets up violent to the Orsini, who would support their ones against, and yet would not have time to serious damage the Orsini. This was the reason why the time-limited powers of the pope were little respected in Italy.

Charles VIII gone into Italy in 1494.

Alexander the being number six in line arose after, who of all the Church Heads that have ever been showed how a pope with both money and arms was able to overcome; and through the instrumentality of the Duke Valentino, and by reason of the getting in of the French, he brought about all those things which I have had a discussion above in the actions of the duke. And although his purpose was not to make more important the Church, but the duke, though that is so, what he did contributed to the being great of the Church, which, after his death and the serious damage of the duke, became the one with right to property, position on death to all his works.

Pope Julius came after and found the Church strong, being owner of all the Romagna, the men of high birth of Rome made less to powerlessness, and, through the punishment of Alexander, the self-interest (political) groups wiped out; he also found the way open to get together money in a way such as had never been done before Alexander's time. Such things Julius not only came after, but made better upon, and he put forward to profit Bologna, to serious damage the Venetians, and to be guiding, controlling the French out of Italy. All of these undertakings done well with him, and so much the more to his credit, inasmuch as he did everything to make stronger the Church and not any private person. He kept also the Orsini and Colonnesi self-interest groups within the bounds in which he discovered them; and although there was among them some mind to make trouble, nevertheless he gripped two things solid: the one, the being great of the Church, with which he made full of fear them; and the other, not letting them to have their own princes of church, who caused the diseases among them. For whenever these self-interest groups have their princes of church they do not keep being in quiet for long, because princes of church be a mother to the self-interest groups in Rome and out of it, and the men of high birth are forced to support them, and thus from the desires of prelates gets up diseases and troubles among the men of high birth. For these reasons his Holiness Pope Leo discovered the Church heading most powerful, and it is to be hoped that, if others made it great in arms, he will make it still greater and more venerated by his goodness and unlimited other good in qualities.

Pope Leo X was the prince of church de' Medici.

Chapter XII -- How many kinds of army men there are, and about paid military men

Having talked particularly on the qualities of such King’s son lands as in the starting I made an offer to have a discussion, and having given thought to as in some degree the causes of their being good or bad, and having made clear the methods by which many have had a look for to become owner of them and to keep them, it now remains for me to have a discussion generally the means of wrongdoing and making attempt to keep from attack which be the property of each of them.

We have seen above how necessary it is for a Prince to have his bases well put down, otherwise it follows of need he will go to destruction. The chief bases of all nations, new as well as old or made of different part or materials, are good laws and good arms; and as there cannot be good laws where the nation is not well armed, it follows that where they are well armed they have good laws. I shall let go of the laws out of the discussion and shall talk of the arms.

I say, as an outcome of that, that the arms with which a Prince keeps from attack his state are either his own, or they are paid military men, helpers, or mixed. Paid military men and helpers are of no use and dangerous; and if one holds his state based on these arms, he will be positioned neither solid nor safe; for they are separated, strongly desiring, and without self control, unfaithful, without fear before friends, fearful before persons hated; they have neither the fear of God nor being true to men, and destruction is gave way only so long as the attack is; for in peace one is took (violently) by them, and in war by the person hated. The fact is, they have no other attraction or reason for keeping the field than a small amount of fixed payment, which is not enough to make them ready to do to come to an end for you. They are ready enough to be your soldiers while you do not make war, but if war comes they take themselves off or run from the person hated; which I should have little trouble to make certain, for the serious damage of Italy has been caused by nothing else than by resting all her hopes for many years on paid military men, and although they formerly made some put on view and appeared full of respect among themselves, yet when the persons of another country came they showed what they were. Thus it was that Charles, King of France, was let to get a grip Italy with chalk in hand; and he who told us that our crimes, wrongs were the cause of it told the truth, but they were not the crimes, wrongs he saw in one's mind, but those which I have given the story of. And as they were the crimes, wrongs of Princes, it is the Princes who have also had pain, trouble with the punishment.

"With chalk in hand," "col gesso." This is one of the “bons mots”of Alexander VI, and says something about to the comfort with which Charles VIII got Italy, follow up that it was only necessary for him to send his sailors guiding ship to chalk up the living place for his soldiers to overcome the country. Cf. "The History of Henry VII," by Lord Bacon: "King Charles had overcame the nation, country, land of Naples, and lost it again, in a kind of a happiness of a sleep experience. He passed the complete body end to end of Italy without stopping effect: so that it was true what Pope Alexander was used to say: That the Frenchmen came into Italy with chalk in their hands, to mark up their housing, rather than with long knives to fight."

I desire to put examples on view farther the way which is not quite happy, right of these arms. The paid military man chiefs are either able men or they are not; if they are, you cannot believe them, because they always have in mind to their own greatness, either by being ruled cruelly you, who are their chief, or others opposite to your purposes; but if the chief is not knowledgeable, you are caused serious damage in the general way.

And if it be urged that whoever is armed will act in the same way, whether paid military man or not, I answer that when arms have to be gone for help to, either by a Prince or a nation with a President, then the Prince rightly would to go in person and do the right thing to do of a chief; the nation with a President has to send its persons having rights in the nation, and when one is sent who does not turn out good, it rightly would to have in mind, get memory of him, and when one is good, kind, to keep him by the laws so that he does not go the order. And experience has made clear Princes and nations with Presidents, one-handed, making the greatest forward development, and paid military men doing nothing except damage; and it is more hard to take a nation with a President, armed with its own arms, under the controlling of one of its citizens than it is to take one armed with out-of-country arms. Rome and Sparta stood for many ages armed and free. The Swiss are completely armed and quite free.

Of old paid military men, for example, there are the Carthaginians, who were kept under by force by their paid military man soldiers after the first war with the Romans, although the Carthaginians had their own citizens for chiefs. After the death of Epaminondas, Philip of Macedon was made chief of their soldiers by the Thebans, and after a good outcome he took away their condition of being free.

Duke Filippo being dead, the Milanese enlisted Francesco Sforza against the Venetians, and he, having overcome the person hated at Caravaggio, joined by agreement himself with them to crush the Milanese, his chiefs, rulers, persons in control. His father, Sforza, having been be in agreement to married by Queen Johanna of Naples, left her unsupported, so that she was forced to send put on without care herself into the arms of the King of Aragon, in order to keep from destruction her country with a king. And if the Venetians and Florentines formerly stretched their dominions by these arms, and yet their chiefs did not make themselves Princes, but have kept from attack them, I answer that the Florentines in this example have been supported by chance, for of the able chiefs, of whom they might have stood in fear, some have not overcame, some have been, fought against, and others have turned their desires in another place. One who did not overcome was Giovanni Acuto, and since he did not overcome his trueness cannot be made certain that all in order; but everyone will give credit for that, had he overcame, the Florentines would have stood at his quality of acting wisely. Sforza had the Bracceschi always against him, so they watched each other. Francesco turned his desire to go far to Lombardy; Braccio against the Church and the country with a king of Naples. But let us come to that which happened a short while earlier. The Florentines having all necessary things as their chief Pagolo Vitelli, a most taking care, wise man, who from a private position had gotten up to the greatest name. If this man had taken Pisa, nobody can say no to that it would have been right for the Florentines to keep in with him, for if he became the army man of their persons hated against they had no means of opposing, and if they gripped to him they must do as ordered him. The Venetians, if their things done are thought out, will be seen to have acted safely and a given respect for great doings so long as they sent to war their own men, when with armed men of good birth, position, education and plebians they did respectfully. This was before they turned to undertakings on land, but when they began to fight on land they forsook this good quality and came after the thing generally done of Italy. And in the starting of their expansion on land, through not having much field covered, and because of their great good name, they had not much to fear from their chiefs; but when they got greater, as under Carmignuola, they had a taste of this error; for, having discovered him a most full of respect man (they beat the Duke of Milan under his quality of being a chief), and, on the other hand, being certain how not very warm he was in the war, they feared they would no longer overcome under him, and for this reason they were not ready to do, nor were they able, to let him go; and so, to keep again that which they had gotten, they were forced, in order to safe, certain themselves, to put him to death. They had after for their chiefs Bartolomeo da Bergamo, Roberto da San Severino, the count of Pitigliano, and the like, under whom they had to fear loss and not profit, as happened after at Vaila, where in one fight they lost that which in eight hundred years they had gotten with so much trouble. Because from such arms gets by force come but slowly, long delayed and unimportant, but the losses sudden and beforehand-minded.

Battle of Caravaggio, 15th September 1448.

Johanna II of Naples, the woman not married again of Ladislao, King of Naples.

Giovanni Acuto. An English military horseman of old whose name was Sir John Hawkwood. He fought in the English wars in France, and was knighted by Edward III; after he gotten together a body of troops and went into Italy. These became the great, greatly respected "White Company." He took part in many wars, and died in Florence in 1394. He was born about 1320 at Sible Hedingham, a small country town in Essex. He married Domnia, a daughter of Bernabo Visconti.

Carmignuola. Francesco Bussone, born at Carmagnola about 1390, put to death at Venice, 5th May 1432.

Bartolomeo Colleoni of Bergamo; died 1457. Roberto of San Severino; died fighting for Venice against Sigismund, Duke of Austria, in 1487. "Primo capitano in Italia." -- Machiavelli. Count of Pitigliano; Nicolo Orsini, born 1442, died 1510.

Battle of Vaila in 1509.

And as with these examples I have got to Italy, which has been ruled for many years by paid military men, I desire to have a discussion them more seriously, in order that, having seen their go higher and forward development, one may be better got ready to make of less effect (by acting against) them. You must get it clearly that the empire has recently come to be had nothing to do with in Italy, that the Pope has gotten more time-limited power, and that Italy has been made a division up into more nations, for the reason that many of the great cities took up arms against their people of high birth, who, formerly gave approval by the great ruler, were being ruled cruelly them, while the Church was supporting them so in connection with get authority in time-limited power: in many others their citizens became Princes. From this it came to go through that Italy fell partly into the hands of the Church and of nations with Presidents, and, the Church made up of men of religion and the nation with a President of citizens unnatural to arms, both started to go into (army) persons of another country.

The first who gave good (great) name to this army men was Alberigo da Conio, the Romagnian. From the school of this man sprang, among others, Braccio and Sforza, who in their time were the judge of Italy. After these came all the other chiefs who till now have given direction the arms of Italy; and the end of all their facing danger without fear has been, that she has been be all over (the place) by Charles, took (violently) by Louis, made waste by Ferdinand, and gave wound to feelings, self-respect to by the Swiss. The general rule that has guided them has been, first, to lower the credit of army on foot so that they might increase their own. They did this because, living on their money given for work and without field covered, they were unable to support many military men, and a few army on foot did not give them any authority; so they were led to have working military horsemen, with a middle force of which they were supported and given great respect; and affairs were brought to such a go through that, in an army of twenty thousand military men, there were not to be discovered two thousand foot military men. They had, in addition to this, used every art to lessen condition of being tired and danger to themselves and their military men, not putting to death in the fight, but taking prisoners and liberating without price of getting back. They did not attack towns at night, nor did the military stations of the towns attack military place at night; they did not all round the base either with safety wall or field drain, nor did they military operation in the winter. All these things were permitted by their military rules, and worked out by them to keep from, as I have said, both condition of being tired and dangers; thus they have brought Italy to the use of persons as property and very low opinion.

Alberigo da Conio. Alberico da Barbiano, Count of Cunio in Romagna. He was the chief of the great, greatly respected "Company of St4 George," controlled, untroubled entirely of Italian military men. He died in 1409.

Chapter XIII -- About helpers, Mixed army men, And one's own

Helpers, which are the other of no use arm, are given work when a Prince is named in with his forces to help and keep from attack, as was done by Pope Julius in the most nearby times; for he, having, in the undertaking against Ferrara, had poor facts in support of his paid military men, turned to helpers, and conditioned with Ferdinand, King of Spain, for his help with men and arms. These arms may be useful and good in themselves, but for him who calls them in they are always bad; for not keeping, one is undone, and getting, one is their prisoner.

Ferdinand V1 (F5. II of Aragon and Sicily, F. III of Naples), surnamed "The wide," born 1542, died 1516.

And although old histories may be full of examples, I do not desire to go this nearby one of Pope Julius the Second, the great danger of which cannot become feeble to be sensed; for he, desiring to get Ferrara, threw himself entirely into the hands of the person of another country. But his good chance brought about a third event, so that he did not get (grain) cut the fruit of his thoughtless selection; because, having his helpers sent the way at Ravenna, and the Switzers having gotten up and driven out the person taking over (against all degree in which event is probable, both his and others), it so came to go through that he did not become prisoner to his persons hated against, they having went running from, nor to his helpers, he having overcame by other arms than theirs.

The Florentines, being entirely without arms, sent ten thousand Frenchmen to take Pisa, whereby they ran more danger than at any other time of their troubles.

The great ruler of Constantinople, to put forward as opposite his persons living near, sent ten thousand Turks into Greece, who, on the war being made complete, were not ready to do to put an end; this was the starting of the being forced to do work for another of Greece to the unbelievers.

Joannes Cantacuzenus, born 1300, died 1383.

As an outcome of that, let him who has no desire to overcome make use of these arms, for they are much more having danger than paid military men, because with them the serious damage is ready made; they are all united, all give in supporting orders to others; but with paid military men, when they have overcame, more time and better chances are needed to damage you; they are not all of one town, they are discovered and paid by you, and a third group, which you have made their head, is not able completely to take on enough authority to damage you. In reasoned opinion, in paid military men lowly behavior is most dangerous; in helpers, fearlessness. The wise Prince, as an outcome of that, has always kept out of the way of these arms and turned to his own; and has been ready to do rather to come out badlywith them than to overcome with the others, not being of opinion (of) that a true, in fact good outcome which is gained with the arms of others.

I shall never be unready to give example Cesare Borgia and his acts. This duke entered the Romagna with helpers, taking there only French military men, and with them he made prisoner Imola and Forli; but after, such forces not seeming to him safe, good, that will not let one down, he turned to paid military men, seeing clearly less danger in them, and enlisted the Orsini and Vitelli; whom presently, on putting one's hands on and discovering them feeling doubt, unfaithful, and dangerous, he made waste to and turned to his own men. And the point or amount unlike between one and the other of these forces can easily be seen when one gives thought to the point or amount unlike there was in the general opinion of the duke, when he had the French, when he had the Orsini and Vitelli, and when he was dependent on his own military men, on whose trueness he could always have value and found it ever increasing; he was never respected more highly than when everyone saw that he was complete chief of his own forces.

I was not having ideas to go beyond italian and nearby examples, but I am unwilling to go out Hiero, the Syracusan, he being one of those I have named over. This man, as I have said, made head of the army by the Syracusans, soon found out that a paid military man army men, constituted like our italian condottieri, was of no use; and it seeming to him that he could neither keep them not let them go, he had them all cut to bits, parts, and after made war with his own forces and not with persons of a different nation.

I desire also to have in mind, get memory of to memory an example from the Old Testament able to be used to this field. David offered himself to Saul to fight with Goliath, the Philistine person very good at sport, and, to give him power of controlling fear, Saul armed him with his own fighting instruments; which David put back (not desired) as soon as he had them on his back, saying he could make no use of them, and that he wished to meet the person hated with his piece of leather for sending stones and his knife. In reasoned opinion, the arms of others either fall from your back, or they get weight you down, or they put together with cord you tightly.

Charles the being seven (in line), the father of King Louis the Eleventh, having by good chance event and fearlessness freed France from the English, been conscious of that the need of being armed with forces of his own, and he made certain in his country with a king orders about men-at-arms and army on foot. After his son, King Louis, put an end to the army on foot and began to move into army the Swiss, which error, came after by others, is, as is now seen, a starting point of great danger to that country with a king; because, having got lifted up, made higher the good name of the Switzers, he has entirely became smaller the value of his own arms, for he has made waste to the army on foot completely; and his men-at-arms he has gave lesser important to others, for, being as they are so gotten used to fight in company with Switzers, it does not come into view as that they can now overcome without them. For this reason it comes about that the French cannot support against the Switzers, and without the Switzers they do not come off well against others. The armies of the French have thus become mixed, partly paid military man and partly of the nation, both of which arms together are much better than paid military men alone or helpers by oneself, but much of rough (poor) quality to one's own forces. And this example gets knowledge of it, for the country with a king of France would be incontrollable if the ordinance of Charles had been made greater or kept going.

Charles VII of France, surnamed "The Victorious," born 1403, died 1461.

Louis XI, son of the over, born 1423, died 1483.

But the little wise material of man, on going in, coming in into an business which looks well at first, cannot see the poison that is put out of the way in it, as I have said above of violent overheated-body. as an outcome of that, if he who rules a King’s son lands cannot take in consciously badly, wrong, bad things until they are upon him, he is not truly wise; and this knowledge is given to small number. And if the first shocking event to the Roman Empire should be was looking at, it will be discovered to have started only with the going into (army) of the Goths; because from that time the power of the Roman Empire began to say no to, and all that fearlessness which had got lifted up, made higher it passed away to others.

"a great number of speakers to the House the other night in the discussion on the make smaller of arms seemed to make clear to a most rightly to be regretted being without knowledge of the conditions under which the UK Empire maintains its existence. When Mr Balfour replied to the things put forward without facts that the Roman Empire sank under the weight of its military debts, he said that this was 'to the complete amount unhistorical.' He might well have added that the Roman power was at its top when every person having rights in the nation given credit his debt to fight for the nation, but that it began to say no to as soon as this debt was no longer been conscious of that." – Pall Mall Gazette, 15th May 1906.

I come to belief by reasoning, as an outcome of that, that no King’s son lands is not able to get loose without having its own forces; on the opposite, it is entirely dependent on good chance event, not having the fearlessness which in bad times would keep from attack. And it has always been the opinion and decision of wise men that nothing can be so uncertain or changing as being talked-about or power not started on its own power. And one's own forces are those which are controlled, untroubled either of persons, persons having rights in the nation, or dependents; all others are paid military men or helpers. And the way to make ready one's own forces will be easily found if the rules suggested by me shall be gave sign of upon, and if one will take into account how Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, and many nations with Presidents and Princes have put in a complete orderly way themselves, to which rules I entirely do myself.

Chapter XIV -- that which has a part in a Prince on the field of the art of war

A Prince rightly would to have no other direction or thought, nor select anything else for his observation, than war and its rules and training; for this is the one and only art that is right for to him who rules, and it is of such force that it not only supports those who are born Princes, but it often enables men to go higher from a private station to that position. And, on the opposite, it is seen that when Princes have thought more of comfort than of arms they have lost their nations. And the first cause of your not keeping it is to not taken care of this art; and what enables you to become owner of a state is to be chief of the art. Francesco Sforza, through being war-like, from a private person became Duke of Milan; and the sons, through keeping out of the way the hard times and troubles of arms, from dukes became private persons. For among other badly, wrong, bad things which being unarmed takes you, it causes you to be hated, and this is one of those ignominies against which a Prince rightly would to look after himself, as is made clear later on. Because there is nothing rightly-related between the armed and the unarmed; and it is not good-sensed that he who is armed should give in supporting orders readily to him who is unarmed, or that the unarmed man should be kept from attack among armed lowly workers. Because, there being in the one take no interest in and in the other no belief in, it is not possible for them to work well together. And therefore a Prince who does not get it clearly the art of war, over and above the other unhappy chance, events already said the name of, cannot be respected by his military men, nor can he have belief in on them. He rightly would not ever, as an outcome of that, to have out of his thoughts this field of war, and in peace he should tend himself more to its use than in war; this he can do in two ways, the one by acting, the other by observation.

As in connection with acting, he rightly would above all things to keep his men well put in a complete orderly way and did army training, to come after without stopping the go after, by which he gets used to his body to hard times, and learns something of the nature of places, and gets to see out how the mountains get up, how the low lands between mountains open out, how the level, low grass lands be placed on, and to get it clearly the nature of rivers and low and wet lands, and in all this to take the greatest care. Which knowledge is useful in two ways. Firstly, he learns to have knowledge of his country, and is better able to undertake its making attempt to keep from attack; after, with the help of the knowledge and observation of that position, he gets (clearly) with comfort any other which it may be necessary for him to learn hereafter; because the small mountain, low lands between mountains, and level, low grass lands, and rivers and low and wet lands that are, for example of general fact, in Tuscany, have a certain lookalike to those of other countries, so that with a knowledge of the point of view of one country one can easily get to at a knowledge of others. And the Prince that exists without this expert knowledge exists without the most important which it is desirable that a chief should have as owner, for it teaches him to surprise his person hated, to select quarters, to lead armies, to order the fight, to keep army round to attack towns to better chance.

Philopoemen (Philopoemen, "the last of the greeks," born 252 B.C., died 183 B.C.), Prince of the Achaeans, among other warm approval which writers have given on him, is given warm approval to because in time of peace he never had anything in his mind but the rules of war; and when he was in the country with friends, he often stopped and reasoned with them: "If the person hated should be upon that hill, and we should see ourselves here with our army, with whom would be the better chance? How should one best go forward to meet him, keeping the lines? If we should desire to go back, how rightly would we to go after?" And he would put forth to them, as he went, all the chances that could come about an army; he would give attention to their opinion and state his, making certain it with reasons, so that by these going on all the time discussions there could never get up, in time of war, any sudden circumstances that he could not work with.

But to use the power of thought the Prince should read histories, and learn there the actions of great men, to see how they have taken themselves in war, to be looking at the causes of their victories and overcome, so in connection with keep from the latter and be copying in behavior the former; and above all do as an great man did, who took as an example one who had been praised and great, greatly respected before him, and whose things done and land ownership statements he always kept in his mind, as it is said Alexander the Great copied Achilles, Caesar Alexander, Scipio Cyrus. And whoever reads the living of Cyrus, written by Xenophon, will take in consciously after in the living of Scipio how that copy was his great happiness, and how in not having sex relations, affability, all persons as a group, and freeness Scipio made in harmony to those things which have been written of Cyrus by Xenophon. A wise Prince rightly would to observe some such rules, and never in peaceful times support unworking, but increase his resources with industry in such a way that they may be ready (to be used) to him in bad times, so that if good chance event chances it may see him got ready to stand against her blows.

Chapter XV -- having a part in things for which men, And especially Princes, are praised or made responsible

It remains now to see what rightly would to be the rules of acts, behavior for a Prince in the direction of persons and friends. And as I have knowledge that many have written on this point, I be of the opinion that I shall be thought out forward, taking much upon oneself in saying the name of it again, especially as in having a discussion it I shall go away from the methods of other persons in general. But, it being my purpose to write a thing which shall be useful to him who gets it, it appears to me more right to come after up the true, in fact truth of the field of interest than the mind picturing of it; for many have pictured nations with Presidents and King’s son lands which in fact have never been within one's knowledge or seen, because how one lives is so far away from how one rightly would to live, that he who not takes care of what is done for what rightly would to be done, sooner effects his serious damage than his process of making safe; for a man who desires to act entirely up to his business of experts of good quality soon meets with what makes waste him among so much that is wrongdoing.

For this reason it is necessary for a Prince desiring to keep his own to have knowledge how to do wrong, and to make use of it or not according to need. As an outcome of that, sending on one side having existence only in mind things about a Prince, and having a discussion those which are material, I say that all men when they are said of, and chiefly Princes for being more highly placed, are strange for some of those qualities which take them either responsible or give words of warm approval; and thus it is that one is generally said to be open-minded, another money-meanness , using a Tuscan word (because a person overpowered by love of money in our language is still he who desires to have as owner by property-taking, while we give a name of one money-meanness who keeps from having himself too much of the use of his own); one is generally said to be giving freely, kind, one forcefully taking; one cruel, one having feeling for one in trouble; one beliefs-less, another true to; one womanlike and fearful, another well-marked and without fear; one kind, another looking down on others; one sex-loving, another sexless; one true (feeling), another expert at tricking; one hard, another simple, not hard; one serious, another pleasure-loving; one with strong feeling of religion, another beliefs-less, and the like. And I have knowledge that everyone will make statement about oneself of that it would be most rightly given warm approval in a Prince to public viewing all the above qualities that are thought out good; but because they can neither be entirely had nor observed, for mankind conditions do not let it, it is necessary for him to be enough taking care, wise that he may have knowledge how to keep from the say something against of those consciously bad behaviors which would not keep him his state; and also to keep himself, if it be possible, from those which would not keep him it; but this not being possible, he may with less unreadiness let go himself to them. And again, he need not make himself restless at being the cause of a angry words for those consciously bad behaviors without which the state can only be kept (safe) with trouble, for if everything is thought out carefully, it will be discovered that something which looks like good quality, if took as guide, example, rule, would be his serious damage; while something other, which looks like consciously bad behaviors, yet came after takes him safety and well-to-do state.

Chapter XVI -- about freeness and cruelness

Starting then with the first of the named beforehand qualities, I say that it would be well to be generally said to be open-minded. Though that is so, freeness put to use in a way that does not take you the general opinion for it, damages you; for if one uses it uprightly, truly and as it should be put to use, it may not become within one's knowledge, and you will not keep from the protest of wrongdoing of its opposite. As an outcome of that, any one desiring to be supporting among men the name of open-minded is made necessary to keep from no quality of greatness; so that a Prince thus sloped will take in such acts all his property, and will be forced in the end, if he desire to be supporting the name of open-minded, to not in right order, form, time get weight down his persons in general, and tax them, and do everything he can to get money. This will soon make him causing hate to his persons, and becoming poor he will be little valued by any one; in this way, with his freeness, having wounded (feeling) many and rewarded small number, he is acted-on by the very first trouble and endangered by whatever may be the first danger; (be conscious of) having seen before this himself, and desiring to give a pull to back from it, he runs at once into the protest of wrongdoing of being money-meanness.

As an outcome of that, a Prince, not being able to use this good quality of freeness in such a way that it is gave respect to, except to his price, if he is wise he rightly would not to fear the general opinion of being cruel, for in time he will come to be more thought out than if open-minded, seeing that with his interests, money, goods of society his revenues are enough, that he can put forward arguments himself against all attacks, and is able to make connection in undertakings without burdening his persons in general; thus it comes to go through that he uses freeness in the direction of all from whom he does not take, who are numberless, and cruelness in the direction of those to whom he does not give, who are small number.

We have not seen great things done in our time except by those who have been thought out cruel; the rest have became feeble. Pope Julius the Second was given help in getting to the papacy by a general opinion for freeness, yet he did not make an attempt after to keep it up, when he made war on the King of France; and he made many wars without putting any special tax on his persons, for he supplied his added expenses out of his long thriftiness. The present King of Spain would not have undertaken or overcame in so many undertakings if he had been generally said to be open-minded. A Prince, as an outcome of that, on condition that he has not to take his persons, that he can keep from attack himself, that he does not become poor and unhappy, that he is not forced to become forcefully taking, rightly would to keep of little account a general opinion for being cruel, for it is one of those consciously bad behaviors which will make able him to rule.

And if anyone should say: Caesar got empire by freeness, and many others have got to the highest positions by having been open-minded, and by being thought out so, I answer: one or the other you are a Prince in fact, or in a way to become one. In the first example this freeness is dangerous, in the second it is very necessary to be thought out open-minded; and Caesar was one of those who wished to become chief in Rome; but if he had still lived after becoming so, and had not made less his monies used, needed, for something, he would have made waste to his government. And if anyone should (give) answer: Many have been Princes, and have done great things with armies, who have been thought out very open-minded, I (give) answer: one or the other a Prince spends that which is his own or his persons' or else that of others. In the first example he rightly would to be thin-using, in the second he rightly would to taken care of any chance for freeness. And to the Prince who goes forth with his army, supporting it by taking goods/women, make waste, and getting by force, taking care of which is right for to others, this freeness is necessary, otherwise he would not be came after by military men. And of that which is neither yours nor your persons' you can be a ready giver, as were Cyrus, Caesar, and Alexander; because it does not take away your general opinion if you waste that of others, but makes an addition to it; it is only wasting your own that damages you.

And there is nothing wastes so rapidly as being free, for even while you use it you not keep the power to do so, and so become either poor or hated, or other, in keeping out of the way moneyless condition, forcefully taking and hated. And a Prince should look after himself, above all things, against being hated; and freeness leads you to the two. As an outcome of that it is wiser to have a general opinion for cruelness which takes protest of wrongdoing without feeling hate, than to be forced through having a look for a good name for being free to be the cause of a name for forcefully taking which get protest of wrongdoing with feeling of hate.

Chapter XVII -- About cruelness and judging wrongdoer kindly, And whether it is better to be loved than feared

Coming now to the other qualities said-about over, I say that every Prince rightly would to desire to be thought out clement and not cruel. Though that is so he rightly would to take care not to make wrong use of this judging wrongdoer kindly. Cesare Borgia was thought out cruel; though, his cruelness made ready to put up with the Romagna, joined it, and put back to earlier position it to peace and trueness. And if this be rightly thought out, he will be seen to have been much more kind than the Florentine persons in general, who, to keep from a general opinion for cruelness, permitted Pistoia to be put an end to. As an outcome of that a Prince, so long as he keeps his subjects united and true, rightly would not to mind the protest of wrongdoing of cruelness; because with a few examples he will be more kind than those who, through too much Mercy, let diseases to gets up, from which come after crimes of causing the death of persons or property-taking; for these are used to damage the complete body persons in general, while those executions which make first with a Prince wound (feeling) the person only.

During the taking part in mass outburst between the Cancellieri and Panciatichi self-interest (political) groups in 1502 and 1503.

And of all Princes, it is not possible for the new Prince to keep from the suggestion of cruelness, being in debt to new states being full of dangers. For this reason Virgil, through the mouth of Dido, lets off the inhumanity of her time of (a king) being in debt to its being new, saying:

"Res dura, et regni novitas me talia cogunt Moliri, et late payments as punishment custo de tueri. " (against my will, my chance A ruler's seat unfixed, and an baby nation, offered me keep from attack my lands with all my powers, and look after with these punishments my sea-sides.)

Though that is so he rightly would to be slow to have belief and to act, nor should he himself make clear to fear, but go on in a keeping within limits way with good sense and all persons as a group, so that too much self-belief may not make him careless and too much have doubts about make him disgusting.

Upon this a question comes about: whether it be better to be loved than feared or feared than loved? It may be answered that one should desire to be the two, but, because it is hard to put together them in one person, it is much safer to be feared than loved, when, of the two, either must be did without with. Because this is to be put forward in general of men, that they are unkind, not true, false, fearful, having a desire for what is another's, and as long as you do well they are yours completely; they will offer you their blood, property, existence, and sons and daughters, as is said over, when the need is far stiffly, cold; but when it comes, goes near they turn against you. And that Prince who, having belief in entirely on their hopes, has not take care of other things done to keep off danger, is caused serious damage; because friendships that are got by payments, and not by being great or kindness of mind, may in fact be gotten, but they are not got, and in time of need cannot be supported from upon; and men have less doubt in wounding feeling one who is loved one than one who is feared, for love is kept safe (good) by the connection of debt which, being in debt to the baseness of men, is broken at every chance for their better chance; but fear keeps you safe by a fear of punishment which never becomes feeble.

Though that is so a Prince rightly would to give the impulse for fear in such a way that, if he does not get love, he keeps out of the way of feeling hate; because he can put up with very well being feared while he is not hated, which will always be as long as he keeps from the property of his citizens and subjects and from their women. But when it is necessary for him to go on (forward) against the living of someone, he must do it on right reasoning and for show clearly cause, but above all things he must keep his hands off the property of others, because men more quickly overlook the death of their father than the loss of their property. In addition to, trick reasons given for taking away the property are never needing; for he who has once started to live by property-taking will always see trick reasons given for getting what is right for to others; but reasons for taking living, on the opposite, are more hard to get and sooner slip. But when a Prince is with his army, and has under control a great number, mass of military men, then it is quite necessary for him to have not respect for the general opinion of cruelness, for without it he would never keep his army united or made use of to its taxes.

Among the of more than common quality acts of Hannibal this one is listed: that having led a great army, made up of many different groups of the same blood of men, to fight in out-of-country lands, no differing opinion arose either among them or against the Prince, whether in his bad or in his good chance event. This arose from nothing else than his unkind cruelness, which, with his very great facing danger without fear, made him respected and very badly in the view of his military men, but without that cruelness, his other good qualities were not enough to produce this effect. And short-sighted writers have a high opinion of his acts from one point of view and from another say is wrong the principal cause of them. That it is true his other good in behavior would not have been enough for him may be proved by the example of Scipio, that most very good, of highest quality man, not only of his own times but within the memory of man, against whom, though that is so, his army taken to arms against in Spain; this arose from nothing but his too great forbearance, which gave his soldiers more authority to do than is in harmony with military self control. For this he was upbraided in the Higher law-making group by Fabius Maximus, and called the maker of wrongdoers of the Roman army men. The Locrians were put down waste by a legate of Scipio, yet they were not avenged by him, nor was the rough behavior of the legate punished, being in debt to entirely to his simple, not hard nature. Insomuch that someone in the Higher law-making group, desiring to let off him, said there were many men who knew much better how not to make an error than to right the errors of others. This ways of behavior, if he had been continued in the order, would have put an end to in time the being talked-about and respect given for great doings of Scipio; but, he being under the control of the Higher law-making group, this wounding quality of not only kept secret itself, but contributed to his respect given for great doings.

Coming back to the question of being feared or loved, I come to the reasoned opinion that, men loving according to their own will and fearing according to that of the Prince, a wise Prince should get started himself on that which is in his own control and not in that of others; he must attempt only to keep from feeling hate, as is noted.

Every one lets in how rightly given warm approval it is in a Prince to keep Faith, and to live with true, good nature and not with false behavior. Though that is so our experience has been that those Princes who have done great things have kept good faith of little account, and have within one's knowledge how to get round the intellect of men by false behavior, and in the end have overcome those who have had belief in their word. You must have knowledge there are two ways of making arguments against, the one by the law, the other by force; the first way is right to men, the second to animals; but because the first is frequently not enough, it is necessary to have use of to the second. As an outcome of that it is necessary for a Prince to get it clearly how to use himself of the animal and the man. This has been pictured in mind as taught to Princes by old writers, who give detailed account how Achilles and many other Princes of old were given to the Centaur Chiron to nurse, who brought them up in his training; which means one and only that, as they had for a teacher one who was half animal and half man, so it is necessary for a Prince to have knowledge how to make use of both natures, and that one without the other is not strong. A prince as an outcome of that, being forced consciously to take up the animal, rightly would to select the thick-tailed, sharp-nosed animal of dog family and the great cat of Africa; because the great cat of Africa cannot keep safe himself against wires to get animals and the thick-tailed, sharp-nosed animal of dog family cannot keep safe himself against dogs of natural condition. As an outcome of that, it is necessary to be a thick-tailed, sharp-nosed animal of dog family to make discovery the wires to get animals and a great cat of Africa to make full of fear the dogs of natural condition. Those who have belief in simply on the great cat of Africa do not get it clearly what they are about. as an outcome of that a wise ruler cannot, nor rightly would he to, keep faith when such observance may be turned against him, and when the reasons that caused him to undertaking it have existence no longer. If men were entirely good this rule of behavior would not keep, but because they are bad, and will not keep Faith with you, you too are not joined to observe it with them. and not will there ever be needing to a Prince regular reasons to let off this non-respecting. Of this without end of the day examples could be given, viewing how many agreements between nations and connections have been made nothing and of no effect through the beliefs-lessness of Princes; and he who has within one's knowledge best how to have working the thick-tailed, sharp-nosed animal of dog family has came after, took the place of best.

"making arguments against," i.e. "making an attempt for control." Mr Burd points out that this bit out of book is copied directly from Cicero's "De Officiis": "Nam cum sint duo genera decertandi, unum per disceptationem, alterum per vim; cumque illud proprium be seated hominis, hoc beluarum; confugiendum est after Christ posterius, Si2 uti not licet superiore."

But it is necessary to have knowledge well how to make change in look of this quality of, and to be a great person putting himself forward and trickster; and men are so simple, and so put under condition that to present things necessary, that he who seeks to trick will always see someone who will let himself to be tricked. one nearby example I cannot go through over in quiet, no sound. Alexander the being number six in line did nothing else but trick men, nor ever thought of doing in different conditions, and he always found wrongly losing persons; for there never was a man who had greater power in saying that, or who with greater bad language would state strongly a thing, yet would observe it less; nevertheless his tricks always did well according to his desires, because he well got clearly this side of mankind.

"Nondimanco sempre gli succederono gli inganni (after Christ (ad) votum)." The words "after Christ(ad) votum" are not put in the Testina addition, 1550.

Alexander never did what he said, Cesare never said what he did.- Italian old saying.

As an outcome of that it is unnecessary for a Prince to have all the good qualities I have listed, but it is very necessary to come into view as to have them. And I shall test to say this in addition, that to have them and always to observe them is wounding, and that to come into view as to have them is useful; to come into view as kind, true to, kind, with strong feeling of religion, upright, and to be so, but with a mind so framed that should you have need of not to be so, you may be able and have knowledge how to change to the opposite.

And you have to get it clearly this, that a Prince, especially a new one, cannot observe all those things for which men are respected, being often forced, in order to be supporting the state, to act opposite to being true, friendship, all persons as a group, and religion. as an outcome of that it is necessary for him to have a mind ready to turn itself as agreement as the winds and different in some way of good chance force it, still, as I have said over, not to become different from the good if he can keep from doing so, but, if forced, then to have knowledge how to put about it.

"opposite to being true" or "Faith," "contro alla fede," and "tutto fede," "completely true to," in the next new division of page. It is noted that these two groups of words, "contro alla fede" and "tutto fede," were not put in the Testina one printing, which was made public with the approval of the to do with the head of the church authorities. It may be that the sense having love for to the word "fede" was "the Faith," i.e. the wide system of beliefs, and not as gave here "being true" and "true to." observe that the word "religione" was let go on to support in the wording of the Testina, being used to have the sense of not very good every shade of belief, as one who saw "the religion," a group of words as necessary used to make clear about the Huguenot opinion against the general belief. South in his church-talk IX, P. 69, ed. 1843, comments on this bit out of book as takes as guide, example, rule: "That great person doing regular business at certain store and Coryphaeus of this group, Nicolo Machiavelli, put down this for a chief rule in his political design: 'That the make clear to of religion was able to help to the political man, but the material fact of it damaging.'"

For this reason a Prince rightly would to take care that he never lets anything slip from his lips that is not full with the named beforehand five qualities, that he may come into view as to him who sees and comes to hears him completely kind, true to, kind, upright, and with strong feeling of religion. There is nothing more necessary to come into view as to have than this last quality, inasmuch as men judge generally more by the eye than by the hand, because it is right for to everybody to see you, too few to come in touch with you. Everyone sees what you come into view as to be, few really have knowledge what you are, and those few have no fear not put forward as opposite themselves to the opinion of the a great number of, who have the keep safe them; and in the actions of all men, and especially of Princes, which it is not taking care, wise to questioning, one judges by the outcome.

For that reason, let a Prince have the credit of overcoming and keeping his state, the means will always be thought out straight, good, and he will be praised by everybody; because the common, rough, unpolished are always taken by what a thing seems to be and by what comes of it; and in the everywhere there are only the common, rough, unpolished, for the few see a place there only when the many have no land to rest on.

One son of king of the present time, whom it is not well to name, never gives a talk anything else but peace and good Faith, and to both he is most violent, and one or the other, if he had kept it, would have kept without things him of good name and country with a king many a time.

Ferdinand of Aragon. "When Machiavelli was writing 'The Prince' it would have been clearly not possible to say the name of Ferdinand's name here without giving wrongdoing." Burd's "Il1 Principe," P. 308.

Chapter XIX -- that one should keep from being hated

Now, about the qualities of which have a say about is made over, I have said in voice of the more important ones, the others I desire to have a discussion briefly under this generality, that the Prince must take into account, as has been in part said before, how to keep from those things which will make him hated or rightly viewed with low opinion; and as often as he shall have done well he will have put into effect his part, and he need not fear any danger in other angry words.

It makes him hated above all things, as I have said, to be forcefully taking, and to be a one doing crime of the property and women of his persons, from both of which he must keep from. And when neither their property nor their great respect is touched, the greater number or part of men live happy, and he has only to be fighting, in competition with the desire to go far of a small number, whom he can control with comfort in many ways.

It makes him rightly viewed with low opinion to be thought out not true, pleasure-loving womanlike, cruel-minded, uncertain, in doubt from all of which a Prince should look after himself as from a great stone; and he should attempt to make clear to in his actions being great, power of controlling fear, serious air and self-control (in face of trouble); and in his private trading with his subjects let him make clear to that his decisions are unchangeable, and be supporting himself in such general opinion that no one can hope either to trick him or to get round him.

That Prince is highly respected who gives this idea of himself, and he who is highly respected is not easily worked against; for, on condition that it is well within one's knowledge that he is an very good, of highest quality man and respected by his persons in general, he can only be attacked with trouble. For this reason a Prince rightly would to have two fears, one from within, on account of his persons, the other from without, on account of outside powers. From the latter he is kept safe by being well armed and having good groups with common purposes, and if he is well armed he will have good friends, and affairs will always keep being in quiet within when they are quiet without, unless they should have been already troubled by design formed together; and even should affairs outside be troubled, if he has done his readying and has lived as I have said, as long as he does not hopelessness, he will stand against every attack, as I said Nabis the Spartan did.

But about his persons, when affairs outside are troubled he has only to fear that they will work against authority secretly, from which a Prince can easily safe himself by keeping out of the way being hated and by keeping the people made free from doubt with him, which it is most necessary for him to do, as I said above at end to end. And one of the most effective things against disease that a Prince can have against common work against authority is not to be hated by the persons in general, for he who works against authority against a Prince always expects to please them by his take-away but when the person working against authority can only look forward to wounding feeling them, he will not have the power of controlling fear to take such a order of events, for the difficulties that put face-to-face a person working against authority are unlimited. And as experience shows many have been the common work against authority, but few have been good; because he who works against authority cannot act by oneself, nor can he take a friend except from those whom he believes to be unhappy persons, and as soon as you have opened your mind to a unhappy person you have given him the material with which to happy himself, for by making public a person's wrongdoing you he can look for every better chance; so that, seeing the profit from this direction to be said without doubt, and seeing the other to be feeling doubt and full of dangers, he must be a very uncommon friend, or a completely fixed mind-view person hated of the Prince, to keep Faith with you.

And, to make less the field of interest into a small effect, I say that, on the side of the person working against authority, there is nothing but fear, hatefulness, view of punishment to make full of fear him; but on the side of the Prince there is the given authority, respect of the King’s son lands, the laws, the care of friends and the state to keep him safe; so that, adding to all these things the pleasing to all goodwill, it is not possible that any one should be so be acting over-quickly in connection with work against authority. For in view of the fact that in general the person working against authority has to fear before the getting things done of his secret design, in this example he has also to fear the after-effects to the crime; because on account of it he has the people for an person hated, and thus cannot hope for any get away.

Without end examples could be given on this field, but I will be happy with one, brought to go through within the memory of our fathers. Messer Annibale Bentivogli, who was Prince in Bologna father's (or mother's) father of the present Annibale), having been put a person to death by the Canneschi, who had worked against authority against him, not one of his family still lived but Messer Giovanni, who was in time of being young: immediately after his death by a violent attack the people rose and put a person to death all the Canneschi. This sprung from the pleasing to all goodwill which the house of Bentivogli got pleasure out of in those days in Bologna; which was so great that, although none remained there after the death of Annibale who was able to rule the nation, the Bolognese, having knowledge that there was one of the Bentivogli family in Florence, who up to that time had been thought out the son of a iron worker, sent to Florence for him and gave him the government of their great town, and it was ruled by him until Messer Giovanni came in needing direction to the government.

Giovanni Bentivogli, born in Bologna 1438, died at Milan 1508. He ruled Bologna from 1462 to 1506. Machiavelli's strong give decision ordering punishment of common work against authority may get its edge from his own very nearby experience (February 1513), when he had been put under police control and gave great pain for his put forward wrongdoing in the Boscoli common work against authority.

For this reason I take into account that a Prince rightly would take into account common work against authority of little account when his people keep him in respect; but when it is violent to him, and takes feeling hate in the direction of him, he rightly would to fear everything and everybody. And well-ordered states and wise Princes have taken every care not to be guiding the persons of high birth to troubled mind, and to keep the people pleased and made happy, for this is one of the most important ends a Prince can have.

Among the best ordered and controlled countries with kings of our times is France, and in it are discovered many good institutions on which be dependent on the condition of being free and safety of the king; of these the first is the law-making body and its authority, because he who started the country with a king, being certain the desire to go far of the of high births and their fearlessness, thought out that a bit to their mouths would be necessary to keep them in; and, on the other side, being certain the feeling hate of the persons in general, based in fear, against the persons of high birth, he wished to keep safe (out of danger) them, yet he was not all troubled for this to be the one care of the king; as an outcome of that, to take away the say something against which he would be responsible to from the persons of high birth for supporting the persons in general, and from the people for supporting the persons of high birth, he put up an judge, who should be one who could beat down the great and way the less than another without say something against to the king. Neither could you have a better or a more taking care, wise trade, or a greater starting point of safety to the king and country with a king. From this one can give a pull to another important reasoned opinion, that Princes rightly would to let go of affairs of say something against to the managers of a business of others, and keep those of Grace in their own hands. And farther I take into account that a Prince rightly would to Cherish the persons of high birth, but not so in connection with make himself hated by the persons in general.

It may come into view as, possibly, to some who have gone into with care the lives and deaths of the Roman great rulers that many of them would be an example opposite to my opinion, seeing that some of them lived with high, good behavior and showed great qualities of seat of feeling, nevertheless they have lost their empire or have been put to death by subjects who have worked against authority against them. desiring, as an outcome of that, to answer these makes attempts to stop, I will have in mind, get memory of the qualities of some of the great rulers, and will make clear to that the causes of their damaged thing were not different to those put forward by me; at the same time I will only take orders (from) for thought those things that are noted to him who studies the affairs of those times.

It seems to me to take all those great rulers who came after, took the place of to the empire from Marcus the philosopher3 down to Maximinus; they were Marcus and his son Commodus, Pertinax, Julian, Severus and his son Antoninus Caracalla, Macrinus, Heliogabalus, Alexander, and Maximinus.

There is first to note that, in view of the fact that in other King’s son lands the desire to go far of the persons of high birth and the rough behavior of the people only have to be put up with, the Roman great rulers had a third trouble in having to put up with the cruelness and overpowering love of money of their military men, a field of interest so with danger on all sides that it was the serious damage of a great number of; for it was a hard thing to give feeling of pleasure both to soldiers and persons in general; because the people loved peace, and for this reason they loved the unaspiring Prince, while the soldiers loved the warlike Prince who was well-marked, cruel, and forcefully taking, which qualities they were quite ready to do he should use upon the persons in general, so that they could get twice undergo punishment and give (small) outlet to their own great desire for more and cruelness. for this reason it arose that those great rulers were always put an end to who, either by birth or training, had no great authority, and most of them, especially those who came new to the King’s son lands, (be conscious of) having seen before the trouble of these two being, fighting against humors, were had a tendency to to give feeling of pleasure to the military men, caring little about damaging the persons in general. which direction was necessary, because, as Princes cannot help being hated by someone, they rightly would, in the first place, to keep from being hated by everyone, and when they cannot (brain) take in this, they rightly would to attempt with the best attention to keep from the feeling hate of the most powerful. as an outcome of that, those great rulers who through unknowing had need of special give approval, support kept to more readily to the soldiers than to the persons in general; a direction which turned out better to them or not, as agreement as the Prince knew how to be supporting authority over them.

From these causes it arose that Marcus, Pertinax, and Alexander, being all men of small living, lovers of right, persons hated against to cruelness, kind, and benignant4, came to a sad end except Marcus; he alone lived and died given great respect, because he had came after, took the place of to the ruler's seat by (position) handed down in family line sign of position, and owed nothing either to the soldiers or the persons in general; and after, being had of many good in behavior which made him respected, he always kept both orders in their places while he lived, and was not hated.

But Pertinax was made great ruler against the desires of the military men, who, being gotten used to live loosely under Commodus, could not put up with the upright, true living to which Pertinax wished to make less them; in this way, having given cause for feeling hate, to which feeling hate there was added very low opinion for his old times in existence, he was put down at the very starting of his government. And here it should be noted that feeling hate is gotten as much by good works as by bad ones, as an outcome of that, as I said before, a Prince desiring to keep his state is very often forced to do wrongdoing; for when that body is having errors or changes whom you have in mind that you have need of to be supporting yourself -- it may be either the people or the soldiers or the people of high birth-- you have to take orders (from) to its humors and to please them, and then good works will do you cause damage.

But let us come to Alexander, who was a man of such great goodness, that among the other gives warm approval which are given him is this, that in the fourteen years he kept the empire no one was ever put to death by him unjudged; though that is so, being thought out womanlike and a man who let himself to be controlled by his mother, he became hated the army worked against authority against him, and put him to death.

Turning now to the opposite qualities of Commodus, Severus, Antoninus Caracalla, and Maximinus, you will see them all cruel and forcefully taking-men who, to give what is desired, needed to their military men, did not be unready to put down in writing every kind of wrongfulness against the persons in general; and all, except Severus, came to a bad end; but in Severus there was so much fearlessness that, keeping the soldiers friendly, although the people were kept under by force by him, he ruled good; for his fearlessness made him so much had high opinion in the view of the soldiers and people that the latter were kept in a way surprised and respectfully feared and the former respectful and made pleased. And because the actions of this man, as a new Prince, were great, I desire to make clear to briefly that he knew well how to false copy the thick-tailed, sharp-nosed animal of dog family and the great cat of Africa, which natures, as I said over, it is necessary for a Prince to copy.

Being certain the unproductive behavior of the great ruler Julian, he certain the army in Sclavonia, of which he was chief, that it would be right to go to Rome and get even for the death of Pertinax, who had been put to death by the praetorian military men; and under this trick reasons given, without seeming to have in mind to the ruler's seat, he moved the army on Rome, and got to Italy before it was within one's knowledge that he had started. On his getting in at Rome, the Higher law-making group, through fear, selected him great ruler and put to death Julian. After this there remained for Severus, who wished to make himself chief of the complete body empire, two troubles; one in Asia, where Niger, head of the Asiatic army, had caused himself to be stated as great ruler; the other in the west where Albinus was, who also was minded to get the ruler's seat. And as he thought out it dangerous to make public, clear statement himself violent to the two, he decided to attack Niger and to trick Albinus. To the latter he wrote that, being selected great ruler by the Higher law-making group, he was ready to part that self-respect with him and sent him the sign of position of Caesar; and, in addition, that the Higher law-making group had made Albinus his like-positioned person; which things were taken by Albinus as true. But after Severus had overcame and put to death Niger, and (made) certain, fixed of the East business, he returned to Rome and complained to the higher law-making group that Albinus, little (be conscious of) having seen before the benefits that he had received from him, had by false behavior made attempt to put him to death, and for this doing nothing for kind acts (help) he was forced to punish him. After he had a look for him out in France, and took from him his government and living. He who will, as an outcome of that, carefully be looking at the actions of this man will see him a most full of respect great cat of Africa and a most expert at tricking thick-tailed, sharp-nosed animal of dog family; he will see him feared and respected by everyone, and not hated by the army; and it need not be questioned at that he, a new man, was able to keep the empire so well, because his highest good name always kept safe (out of danger) him from that feeling hate which the people might have got (thought) formed in mind against him for his violent acts.

But his son Antoninus was a most noted man, and had very good, of highest quality qualities, which made him very good in the view of the people and pleasing to the military men, for he was a warlike man, most undergoing of condition of being tired, a hater of all delicate food and other great comforts, which caused him to be loved one by the armies. though that is so, his violence and cruel acts were so great and so unheard of that, after without end single crimes of causing the death of persons, he put to death a wide, of great size number of the people of Rome and all those of Alexandria. He became hated by the complete body everywhere, and also feared by those he had around him, to such an amount that he was put to death in the middle of his army by a chief of 100 men. And here it must be noted that such-like deaths, which are purposely gave (pain) with a came to a decision and at the end of power of controlling fear, cannot be kept out of the way of by Princes, because anyone who does not fear to come to an end can give (pain) them; but a Prince may fear them the less because they are very uncommon; he has only to be done carefully not to do any serious physical damage to those whom he employs or has around him in the military arm of the nation. Antoninus had not taken this care, but had rudely put to death a brother of that chief of 100 men, whom also he daily suggested violent behavior, yet kept in his man on watch; which, as it turned out, was a thoughtless thing to do, and proved the great ruler's serious damage.

But let us come to Commodus, to whom it should have been very simple, not hard to keep the empire, for, being the son of Marcus, he had got handed down it, and he had only to come after in the footsteps of his father to please his people and military men; but, being by nature cruel and very cruel, he gave himself up to giving amusement the soldiers and going bad them, so that he might give way to his rapacity upon the persons in general; on the other hand, not be supporting his self-respect, often sloping down to the theater to take part in competition with Roman show fighters, and doing other disgusting things, little good, kind of the imperial given authority, respect, he fell into very low opinion with the military men, and being hated by one group and had no respect by the other, he was worked against authority against and was put to death.

It remains to have a discussion the person in work of Maximinus. He was a very warlike man, and the armies, being disgusted with the effeminacy of Alexander, of whom I have already said in voice, put to death him and selected Maximinus to the ruler's seat. This he did not have as owner for long, for two things made him hated, the one, his having kept sheep in Thrace, which brought him into very low opinion (it being well within one's knowledge to all, and thought out a great blow to self respect by everyone), and the other, his having at the way-opening to his dominions put off to a later time going to Rome and control of the imperial seat; he had also gained a general opinion for the best violence by having, through his prefects in Rome and elsewhere in the empire, did many cruel acts, so that the complete body everywhere was moved to violent feelings at the cruelness of his birth and to fear at his roughness. First Africa taken to arms against, then the Higher law-making group with all the people of Rome, and all Italy worked against him, to which may be added his own army; this the second (of two), keeping armies round to attack Aquileia and meeting with difficulties in taking it, were disgusted with his cruel acts, and fearing him less when they found so many against him, put him to death.

I do not desire to have a discussion Heliogabalus, Macrinus, or Julian, who, being completely rightly viewed with low opinion, were quickly wiped out; but I will take this talk to a reasoned opinion by saying that Princes in our times have this trouble of giving larger than required feeling of pleasure to their soldiers in a far less degree, because, though one has to give them some way to desires, that is soon done; none of these Princes have armies that are with long experience in the ruling and the government of country divisions, as were the armies of the Roman empire; and in view of the fact that it was then more necessary to give feeling of pleasure to the soldiers than to the persons in general, it is now more necessary to all Princes, except the Turk and the Soldan, to please the people rather the military men, because the people are the more powerful.

From the above I have but for the Turk, who always keeps round him twelve thousand army on foot and 15 thousand military horsemen on which be dependent on the safety and power of the country with a king, and it is necessary that, putting aside every thought for the persons in general, he should keep them his friends. The country with a king of the Soldan is like; being entirely in the hands of military men, it follows again that, without look upon to the persons in general, he must keep them his friends. But you must note that the nation of the Soldan is unlike all other King’s son lands, for the reason that it is like the Christian church heading, which cannot be named either an (position) handed down in family line or a newly formed King’s son lands; because the sons of the old Prince are not those with rights in family line, but he who is selected to that position by those who have authority, and the sons keep being only persons of high birth. And this being an old thing generally done, it cannot be named a new King’s son lands, because there are none of those difficulties in it that are met with in new ones; for although the Prince is new, the general laws of government of the state is old, and it is framed so in connection with get him as if he were its (position) handed down in family line Lord.

But coming back to the field of our talk, I say that whoever will take into account it will give credit for that either feeling hate or very low opinion has been causing destruction, death to the named beforehand great rulers, and it will be took as having authority also how it happened that, a number of them acting in one way and a number in another, only one in each way came to a happy end and the rest to unhappy ones. Because it would have been of no use and dangerous for Pertinax and Alexander, being new Princes, to copy Marcus, who was one with right to property, position on death to the King’s son lands; and in the same way it would have been completely causing destruction to Caracalla, Commodus, and Maximinus to have copied Severus, they not having enough fearlessness to make able them to be walking in his footsteps. As an outcome of that a Prince, new to the King’s son lands, cannot copy the actions of Marcus, and not, again, is it necessary to come after those of Severus, but he rightly would to take from Severus those parts which are necessary to base his state, and from Marcus those which are right and very beautiful, first-rate to keep a state that may already be unchanging and solid.

Chapter XX -- Are military buildings made strong against attack, and many other things to which Princes often go to for help, better or damaging?

1.Some Princes, so in connection with keep safely the nation, have gave up arms their persons; others have kept their controlled towns took attention away by self-interest (political) groups; others have made stronger unfriendliness against themselves; others have put down themselves out to profit over those whom they had doubts about in the starting of their governments; some have made military buildings made strong against attack; some have put an end to and made waste to them. And although one cannot give a coming last, at the end decision on all of these things unless one is owner of the detailed account of those states in which a decision has to be made, nevertheless I will say as completely as the field of interest of itself will take in.

2.There never was a new Prince who has gave up arms his persons; rather when he has discovered them gave up arms he has always armed them, because, by arming them, those arms become yours, those men who were had doubts about become true to, and those who were true to are kept so, and your subjects become your supporters. And in view of the fact that all subjects cannot be armed, yet when those whom you do arm are helped, the others can be put one's hands on more freely, and this point or amount unlike in their process, which they quite get it clearly, makes the former your dependents, and the second (of two), giving thought to it to be necessary that those who have the most danger and military arm should have the most reward, let you off. But when you give up arms them, you at once wound (feeling) them by viewing that you have doubts about them, either for feeling to run from danger or for need of trueness, and either of these opinions helps feeling hate against you. And because you cannot keep being in unarmed, it follows that you turn to paid military men, which are of the qualities already given view; even if they should be good they would not be enough to keep safe you against powerful persons hated against and doubtful persons. As an outcome of that, as I have said, a new Prince in a new King’s son lands has always made distribution arms. histories are full of examples. But when a Prince gets a new nation, which he makes an addition as a country division to his old one, then it is necessary to give up arms the men of that nation, except those who have been his supporters in getting it; and these again, with time and chance, should be made soft and womanlike; and matters should be managed in such a way that all the armed men in the nation shall be your own soldiers who in your old state were living near you.

3.Our men in the earlier times, and those who were roughly wise, were gotten used to say that it was necessary to keep Pistoia by self-interest (political) groups and Pisa by military buildings made strong against attack; and with this idea they made stronger have violent argument in some of their tributary towns so in connection with keep control of them the more not hard, slowly, simply. This may have been well enough in those times when Italy was in a way balanced, but I do not have belief that it can be taken as a rule of behavior for today, because I do not have belief that self-interest (political) groups can ever be of use; rather it is certain that when the person hated comes upon you in make separate cities you are quickly lost, because the most feeble group will always help the outside forces and the other will not be able to stand against. The Venetians, moved, as I being of the opinion, by the above reasons, made stronger the Guelph and Ghibelline self-interest (political) groups in their tributary great towns; and although they never let them to come to loss of blood, yet they looked after ill persons these disputes among them, so that the persons having rights in the nation, took attention away by their amounts, degrees, points different, should not put together against them. which, as we saw, did not after turn out as was looking on as to come, because, after the put to flight at Vaila, one group at once took power of controlling fear and got the nation. Such methods make the argument, as an outcome of that, feebleness in the Prince, because these self-interest (political) groups will never be permitted in a with force of body or mind King’s son lands; such methods for making able one the more easily to manage subjects are only useful in times of peace, but if war comes this design gets knowledge of wrong.

4.Without doubt Princes become great when they overcome the difficulties and obstacles by which they are came face-to-face and therefore good chance event, especially when she desires to make a new Prince great, who has a greater need to make money for good (great) name than an (position) handed down in family line one, causes persons hated to get up and form designs against him, in order that he may have the chance of overcoming them, and by them to get on higher, as by a long step-structure formed of two uprights which his persons hated against have got lifted up, made higher. For this reason many take into account that a wise Prince, when he has the chance, rightly would with false behavior to make stronger some hate against himself, so that, having crushed it, his good (great) name may go higher.

5.Princes, especially new ones, have discovered more being true and help in those men who in the starting of their rule were had doubts about than among those who in the starting were gave control. Pandolfo Petrucci, Prince of Siena, ruled his state more by those who had been had doubts about than by others. But on this question one cannot say generally, for it becomes different so much with the person; I will only say this, that those men who at the start of a king's son space have been violent, if they are of a account to need help to support themselves, can always be gained over with the greatest comfort, and they will be tightly not gave way to work for the Prince with being true, inasmuch as they have knowledge it to be very necessary for them to put a stop to by acts the bad idea which he had formed of them; and thus the Prince always gets out more profit from them than from those who, giving help another him in too much safety, may not taken care of his business. And since the field of interest demands it, I must not become feeble to suggest due to danger a Prince, who with the help of secret supports has gotten a new nation, that he must well take into account the reasons which got those to way him who did so; and if it be not a natural love in the direction of him, but only unrest with their government, then he will only keep them friendly with great trouble, for it will be not possible to free from doubt them. And weighting well the reasons for this in those examples which can be taken from old and of the day business, we shall see that it is go slowly, do less for the Prince to make friends of those men who were made happy under the former government, and are therefore his persons hated against, than of those who, being unpleased with it, were giving approval to him and gave support to him to get a grip it.

6.It has been a thing generally done with Princes, in order to keep their nations more safely, to make military buildings made strong against attack that may work for as a horse-control apparatus and bit to those who might design to work against them, and as a place of safe place from a first attack. I give words of warm approval this system because it has been made use of formerly. though that, Messer Nicolo Vitelli in our times has been seen to destruct two military buildings made strong against attack in Citta Di Castello so that he might keep that nation; Guido Ubaldo, Duke of Urbino, on coming back to his dominion, from where he had been driven by Cesare Borgia, leveled to the bases all the military buildings made strong against attack in that field of interest, and thought out that without them it would be more hard to not keep it; the Bentivogli coming back to Bologna came to a of the same sort decision. Military buildings made strong against attack, as an outcome of that, are useful or not according to conditions; if they do you good in one way they damage you in another. And this question can be reasoned in this way: the Prince who has more to fear from the people than from persons of another country rightly would to make military buildings made strong against attack, but he who has more to fear from persons of another country than from the people rightly would to let go of them by oneself. The great house made strong from attack of Milan, made by Francesco Sforza, has made, and will make, more trouble for the house of Sforza than any other disease in the nation. For this reason the best possible military building made strong against attack is -- not to be hated by the persons in general, because, although you may keep the military buildings made strong against attack, yet they will not but for you if the people hate you, for there will never be needing persons of another country to help a people who have taken arms against you. It has not been seen in our times that such military buildings made strong against attack have been of use to any Prince, unless to the Countess of Forli, when the Count Girolamo, her married person, was put to death; for by that means she was able to put up with the pleasing to all attack and wait for help from Milan, and thus get back her state; and the position of affairs was such at that time that the persons of another country could not help the persons in general. But military buildings made strong against attack were of little value to her after when Cesare Borgia attacked her, and when the persons in general, her person hated were joined by agreement with persons of another country. as an outcome of that, it would have been safer for her, both then and before, not to have been hated by the people than to have had the military buildings made strong against attack. All these things thought out then, I shall give words of warm approval him who puts up (a building) military buildings made strong against attack as well as him who does not, and I shall responsible whoever, having belief in them, cares little about being hated by the persons in general.

Catherine Sforza, a daughter of Galeazzo Sforza and Lucrezia Landriani, born 1463, died 1509. It was to the Countess of Forli that Machiavelli was sent as desire to have what another has on 1499. A letter from Fortunati to the countess makes public the position given: "I have been with the signori," wrote Fortunati, "to learn whom they would send and when. They say to me that Nicolo Machiavelli, a learned young Florentine of high birth secretary to my lords of the ten, is to go with me at once." Cf. "Catherine Sforza," by Count Pasolini, gave sense of words by P. Sylvester, 1898.

Chapters 21 to 26