dssda     Read and memorize these nouns and adjectives.





























Straight - Bent

True - False


Structure words



Now –Then





1. Nouns


    Though a “hair” is the name of a single object and the plural hairs may be used in the normal way, a covering or growth of hairs (for example, the hair of the human head or an animal' coat) is always talked of as hair, which is used in this way as a singular collective noun, like grass.


    • She has beautiful hair.
    • They keep their hair short.
    • Its long hair keeps it warm.




    • You have some hairs on your coat.


    In this Step, we have four nouns ending in “-ing” which name an activity: “hearing”, “learning”, “teaching”, and “writing”. Like “reading”, they belong to a group of nouns that are used in the same way as the “-ing” forms made from operators. They may take an object and be qualified by an adverb, and they have an adjectival use.


    • He has an instrument for hearing more clearly.
    • I have been hearing strange sounds.
    • Learning these things will not make him wise.
    • Is the boy learning the names quickly?
    • She does more teaching in the school than I do.
    • I am teaching the short words first.
    • The manager had a good reason for writing the letter.
    • My mother is writing by the fire.



2. Adjectives and Quantity

    The last of the adjective of quantity (except for the number adjectives) is “any”.

    “Any” may mean 'an amount or number of, however small.' In this sense it precedes singular names of substances and plural names of countables, and is used instead of some in cases where this sense is appropriate, for example, after a negative, and frequently in questions and if-statements.

    It is similarly used for some or a (an) before singular names of countables.


    • There is not any (never: there is not some) water in the bottle.
    • I have not any (never: I have not some) socks.
    • Have you any wool?
    • Are any sounds coming from the room?
    • Send for me if she has any pain.
    • Is there any fish which has warm blood? ( a, one, some fish)
    • Men who have any respect for society do not do these things.


    Note that “not any” is the equivalent of no.
    “Any” has the further sense of 'one or more (no matter which), which frequently comes to the same thing as saying every. In this sense its use is unrestricted.


    • We are ready for any event.
    • He will give any [price for the picture.
    • Any reason is better than no reason.
    • I will take any wool you have.
    • Any boys who have not done their work will be sent to bed.


    Like “some”, “any” may be used as a pronoun and, if necessary, followed by of and the noun naming that to which it refers.

    • I have put some apples on the table but please do not take any.
    • This place is full of snakes. Have you seen any?
    • Have any of the ships gone down?
    • Is any of babies the one you saw?
    • You may have any of my pictures.



3. Pronouns


    The pronoun “one” is used with the sense any person in making general statements. When so used it forms the possessive with “s”.

    • This news gives one hope.
    • One is what ones early education makes one.


   Compare with “we” in its similar general sense. Either could be used in the above examples, but one is better than we where there might be ambiguity.

    The compound pronouns “myself”, “yourself”, “himself”, “herself”, “itself”, “oneself”, “ourselves”, “yourselves”, “themselves”, are formed, with two exceptions, by combining the possessive adjectives “my”, etc., with self or selves1 The exceptions are himself and themselves. Note also the shortened spelling, itself (for its self) and oneself (for one's self). These pronouns are used in two ways:

(a) They add emphasis to the personal pronoun (or, in the case of the Third Person, it may be a noun or another sort of pronoun) to which they correspond. When so used, they are sometimes placed immediately after the noun or pronoun in question and sometimes at the end of the statements.

    • I myself saw the man before his death.
    • He did not go himself but sent a friend.
    • The pictures themselves are old, but the frames are new.
    • You took the ball away yourself.


(b) They are used as the objects of an operator or preposition when this represents the same person or thing as the subject. 2

    • One may get a knowledge of some things by teaching oneself.
    • Mary took the dress for herself.
    • We are angry with ourselves.



1 Note the plural. Self is chiefly used in these and a few other compounds, such as self-respect


2 They may be used to give special emphasis with get and keep in some cases where an object is not normally required (He go himself into trouble).


4. Prepositions

    “To” has an important use in connection with operators. It is put before the root word form of an operation after a number of operators, nouns, adjectives, and phrases to express, in some sense, a purpose or object. The learner will need further guidance about this construction, especially after nouns and adjectives, with which its use is somewhat arbitrarily limited by usage, so this sense is not a sufficient clue. Attention will be drawn, where necessary, to special phrases.

    The negative of to followed by an operator is formed by putting “not” before it.


    • The girl went to get some sticks.
    • We took him to see the garden.
    • I was sent to give you help.
    • I am ready to go.
    • The workmen are waiting to make a start.
    • He made a decision not to send a letter.
    • The boy's offer to come with us was a surprise.
    • You have a tendency to keep your mouth open.
    • There was nothing to be said.
    • Learning to make baskets takes a long time.
    • I have no money to give to the workmen.


    When an operator proceeded by “to” indicate the purpose or use of something named by a noun, it may be introduced by a relative pronoun preceded by a preposition.


    • A basket in which to put the apples.
    • Money with which to get a drink.


    Or, in accordance with the rule for dropping the relative, we may say:

    • A basket to put the apples in.


    When a person or thing doing or undergoing the act, etc., named by “to” and an operator has to be mentioned, the noun or pronoun naming his is put before to and after “for”.


    • There is no money for me to go to town.
    • We are waiting for the girls to put their hats on.
    • The room is ready for you to go to bed.
    • The committee's decision is for the men not to be more money.


    An operator with “to” in front of it can, like an “-ing” form, be the subject of a sentence. For example, we may say:


    • To take water with one's meals is bad for the stomach.
    • For you to say this is a surprise.
    • For the men to be given money is foolish.


  An operator following “seem” always has to before it.


    • Her eyes seemed to get rounder.
    • He seems to have a worse memory than I have.
    • The girth of the baby seemed to give her pleasure.
    • The time seems to go very slowly.


    Certain adjective, including all those which end in “-ing”, do not follow “seem” directly but may do so after “to be”. The same rule applies to unqualified nouns and to adverbial phrases.


    • He seemed to be handing by his hands.
    • The army seemed to be waiting near the town.
    • The baby seems to be awake.
    • They seem to be married.
    • The card seems to be an advertisement.
    • These men seem to be porters.
    • The boat seems to be in trouble.
    • The book seems to be about birds.


    A noun qualified by a descriptive adjective may, however, like most adjectives, follow “seem” directly, except when the statement is introduced by there. But even in cases, where “to be” is not necessary, it is common, and frequently preferable, to put it in, and the learner should do so whenever in doubt, because it is never wrong.


    • He seems (to be) a good man.
    • There seems to be no warm water.


5. Adverbs


    “Now”, “then”, and “ever” are three adverbs of time. “Then” may refer to past time or to future time.


    • Now the clouds have gone.
    • The young man's education is now complete.
    • The old woman's hearing is bad now.
    • Do it now.
    • Parcels get there more quickly now.
    • Then all ships had sails.
    • The baby will then be awake.
    • He was only a boy then.
    • Journeys took a long time then.


   “Ever” has two senses:

(a) 'At any time' (not matter when). In this sense, its use is limited to questions, negative statements, etc. In negative statements and negative questions, it s position is directly after not, with which it is frequently contracted to never.


    • The leg will not ever (or never) be straight again.
    • This train hasn't ever (or has never) been late.
    • Is he not ever (or never in his office)?
    • Do they never take you with them?


    In other questions it comes after the subject.


    • Are you ever tired?
    • Was the boy ever given a blow?
    • Did you ever see a snake before?


   In all other cases, it comes directly before the operator in a simple tense (except in the case of be, which is sometimes follows) and after the auxiliary in a complex tense.


    • If you ever see any plates like this, please get some for me.
    • If she is ever in trouble we will give her help.
    • If you have ever been in prison, the manager will not give you work.
    • That was the most foolish thing you ever did.
    • It was the first time I had ever seen a town.
    • She is more beautiful than (she) ever (was).


(b) 'Always.' In this sense, its chief use is before adjectives (after the operators be and seem) and in the phrases for “ever”: (for all future time) and “ever after”: (always after the time in question).


    • Here the sky is ever blue.
    • He seems ever ready to give help.
    • Those words will be in my memory for ever.
    • He went away for ever.
    • Every after that day she was early for work.


The adverb of degree “enough” qualifies adjectives and adverbs and comes after the words that it qualifies.


    • The stick is not bent enough.
    • Is his hair short enough for the army?
    • Your offer of help did no come quickly enough.


    “Enough” is also used as an adjective of quantity.


    • He will get the tickets if he has enough money.
    • Make enough black curtains for all the windows.


   “Like” so many adjectives of quantity, enough has a pronoun use.


    • She has some good ideas but not enough.
    • This is enough of the wool for a dress.


   “Enough” is one of the words which may be followed by to and the root form of an operator.


    • Give me enough money to get a ticket with.
    • I have enough of the wood to make another box.
    • We did not go far enough to see the sea.



    A young man came down the street. He seemed to be having a look at the numbers on the doors. When he came to a white house with a green door and a tree in front of it, he went up the steps and gave the bell a pull. He was let by a servant. The young man said he had come to see Mr. Short. The servant took him through the house to the garden where Mr. Short was doing some writing.
    "My name is Page," said the young man. "I have come from Manchester and I have a letter for you from Mr. Wise." Mr. Short got up and put out his hand, saying, "It is a pleasure to see any friend of my dear friend Fed Wise. Aren't you Tom Page's son?"
    "Yes. Tom Page was my father. I'm Jack."
    We are old friends, young man. I had you in my arms when you were a baby. You were on a week old then. I was with your father at the time of your birth. Tom Page's son! That takes my memory back to the days when Tom and Fred and I were schoolboys together. Tom was a very funny boy and we had great respect for him. Learning gave him no trouble and he was very good at teaching the younger boys. He was a good friend, the best I ever had. He had not interest in self and was ready to do anything for others. He was like a brother to me. The news of Tom's death was a great blow. Come into the house and let's have a talk. Hearing your voice is like hearing your father again."
    Mr. Short took up the letter he had been writing and went inside with Jack Page. He made him take a seat and gave him a drink. Then he said, "I haven't had news of any of your family for a very long time. What are you and your mother doing now?
    "After my father's death," said Jack, "my mother's sister, who has a house in Manchester, made an offer to have us. We went there, and my mother's idea was to send me to a school near Manchester because my education wasn't complete, but we hadn't any money and I made her let me get work. I'm in business now and am doing quite well. My sister Mary, after teaching for some time in a small school, got work in a newspaper office. My mother gives her sister some help in the house, and she still does a little dressmaking. There's no need for her to do it because we have enough money now, but she says that work keeps one young."
    "That's quite true, said Mr. Short.”She is wise to give herself something to do. And she's good at dressmaking. When she got married she made all her dresses herself. Take another drink and let me see Fred's letter."
    The young man took the letter from his pocket and gave it to Mr. Short., who said, "There's no change in his writing. It is still clear enough or my old eyes to see." He then got the letter open and had a look at it.
    "Fred has a high opinion of you, young man, and he's not a bad judge. If you are like your father - and he says you are - you will go far. He says you will be in London for some week. What are you doing here?"
    The young man said that his company had sent him to do some work in the London office.
    "Do you come to London frequently?"
    "No." was Jack's answer, "this is my second journey to London."
    "Have you any friends here?"
    "Only business friends."
    "You will quickly make others. We frequently say that a person who comes to London has no chance of meeting anyone or of making friends, but that is quite a false picture of London society."
    Mr. Short again took a look at Mr. Wise's letter. Then, after reading to the end of it, he said, "How is Fred?"
    Jack Page said that he was very well the last item he saw him. "He is an old man now," Mr. Short said.
    "Yes," said Jack, "but he still seems quite young. He hasn't a white hair on his head and his back is till very straight. He does more work that I do and he seems never to get tired.
    "And here I am," said Mr. Short, "a bent old man with white hair. My hearing is bad, I don't see well, and my teeth give me trouble. I had a fall which gave me a pain in my side. That is the reason why I now go about with a stick. One doesn't keep young for ever. How is Fred's son Peter? Do you ever see him?"
    Jack's answer was that he and Peter were great friends and that Peter was in the army. "Young men have a tendency to go into the army," said Mr. Short with a laugh. "I almost went into the army myself when I was young." Jack said, "I may see Peter while I am here. He isn't far from London."
    "If he gets up to London, will you and he come and have a meal with me somewhere?"
    "May we?"
    "Please do. Send me a letter when you have news of him."
    "Yes, I will. And now I'll go, because I see that it is getting late and you have had quite enough of my company for one day."
    Mr. Short then took his young friend to the door. When he was on the doorstep he said, "Come again some time and have a long talk." "I will," said Jack, putting out his hand. "It will be a pleasure." Mr. Short went back into the house, saying to himself, "Tom Page's son? That was surprise.


dssda        Read Carefully, this are some sentences of the text, and here is the explanation form them.

Down the street: Up and down are freely used to indicate the relative position of direction of things which are not necessarily on different levels, sometimes with some reason, as when we are thinking of the number of the houses in a street, or of a scale of importance, as in going up to London, or of some association, as “down south”, “up north” (because that is how it appears on a wall-map), but frequently, especially with words like street, without any apparent reason, so that it does not matter which you use.

Said he had come: In everyday speech, that is frequently omitted after say (and less commonly, see).

A pleasure: This is a thing which gives pleasure. Compare with a surprise.

Aren’t you Tom Page's son?: A question is frequently put into the negative form, as here, to indicate that an affirmative answer is expected. Note that the answer, "Yes" means "Yes, I am Tom Page's son," not "Yes, I am not Tom Page's son."

A week old: Note this idiomatic way of starting the age of anything by putting old after the words giving the length of its existence. It is one of a group of phrases of the same type which are dealt with in Step 41.

Respect for: That towards which one feels respect is always pointed to by the preposition for.

Good at: A person who does a thing well is good at it. One who does a thing badly is bad at it.

The best I ever had:  The best friend. The dropping of a noun which can readily be inferred is very common after all adjectives in the superlative. It is sometimes possible, but not at all common, with comparatives.

Anything: Compare with everything, something. Any may have either of its senses in the compound.

A great blow: By expansion, blow is used for a shock to the feelings, which affects one like a physical blow.

Then he said: Then here means after that, rather than at that time. It is often used in this way to connect a sequence of events.

In business: A person who makes his living in the field of commerce or finance is said to be in business. In general we speak of being in a calling or profession, and to take it up is to go into it. Compare "in the army," "go into the army," later in this text.

Doing quite well: Do well:  prosper, succeed. Do badly expresses the opposite.

Change in: The preposition in is used after change to indicate that which undergoes the change.

His writing: That is, his script, his handwriting.

Not a bad judge: By this negative statement, Mr. Short meant that his friend was quite a good judge. Understatement is frequently used by English people, as by those in many other nationalities, to give a special sort of emphasis.

Go far: do well, succeed

No chance of: Chance is here used in the sense of 'opportunity.'

Anyone: Compare with everyone, someone.

How is Fred? : Note this idiomatic use of how followed by a form of be to ask a question about the state of a person's health.

He was very well: Well may be used as an adjective meaning "in good health."

The last time: That is, on the most recent occasion. “The” is frequently omitted.

My hearing is bad: By expansion, hearing may be used for 'sense of hearing.' Note that, by a similar expansion, touch ('sense of touch.')

Had a fall: Note that the operator “have” is used with fall.

A pain in my side: A person´s side is the side of his body from the arm-pit to the thigh.

That is the reason why: Note that why may introduce a statement qualifying the word reason. The reason why:  the reason for which. Compare with the time when and the price where.

Go about: The root sense of about is ‘around, on all sides of.’ From this, it comes to be used for ‘here and there,’ or when it is a preposition, ‘here and there, in or on.’ Sometimes, as here, it does little more than generalize the action. To go about is then simply to go:  wherever one does go.

Great friends: Note this use of green before friend to indicate the degree of friendship. Note, also, that we say simply “They are friends, ‘meaning’ each is the friend of the other.”
The sense of these compounds is clear without a note: doorstep, dressmaking.